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Big Bang Theory vs. Electric Plasma Universe
« on: August 08, 2015, 07:32:17 AM »
Supermagnetic Field or ‘Supermassive Black Hole’
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ISIS Report 05/08/15
Supermagnetic Field or ‘Supermassive Black Hole’

Huge magnetic fields in a quasar where a ‘supermassive black hole’ is supposed to be gives the lie to Big Bang theory and strong support instead for the Electric Plasma Universe
Dr Mae-Wan Ho
Artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole
Black holes and gravitational waves, do they really exist?

In accordance with the prevailing Big Bang Theory of cosmology based on gravity and Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and as ‘proven’ by the powerful Hubble space telescope, a supermassive black hole is at the centre of most if not all large galaxies [1]. Quasars - extremely bright energetic objects once thought to be star-like - are also found at the centre of galaxies, and ‘most scientists’ believe that quasars are powered by the supermassive black holes.
Note that black holes by definition cannot be seen, they are ‘so dense, and with so much mass, that even light cannot escape their gravity.’ But the Hubble made it possible to see the ‘effects of the gravitational attraction’ of black holes on their surroundings. In other words, the observation of black holes is at best indirect, based on what a black hole might do to its environment, and indeed, proposed in order to ‘explain’ the observations.

A University of Illinois archive states [2]: “For example, if gas from a nearby star were sucked towards the black hole, the intense gravitational energy would heat the gas to millions of degrees. The resulting X-ray emissions could point to the presence of the black hole.” However, it admits that “such evidence remains indirect and therefore inconclusive. To confirm that black holes actually exist, we’ll need to be able to observe the gravitational waves they produce as they form or interact [with nearby matter].”

Gravitational waves were also predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity in 1916. Now, nearly a century later, no gravitational waves have ever been detected and not for want of trying; the latest attempt involving 900 scientists was announced February 2015, promising results by January 2017 [3].
Despite the lack of evidence, most cosmologists are adamant that black holes actually exist, and are exceptionally hostile to any other explanation; for example, the possibility that the highly energetic effects attributed to black holes may be due to electric and magnetic forces as proposed in the theory of the Plasma Universe, or Electric Universe, which can much better explain the avalanche of ‘surprises’ (to Big Bang theory) from increasingly detailed astronomical observations in the entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum (see [4] Continuous Creation from Electric Plasma versus Big Bang Universe, SiS 60).

The newly discovered supermagnetic field where a supermassive black hole is supposed to reside [5, 6] is the strongest evidence yet in favour of the Electric Plasma Universe. It is not the first discovery of strong magnetic fields at the centre of galaxies, although at 200 million Gauss, it qualifies as the biggest one discovered so far.
Magnetic fields (up to hundreds of Gauss) have been measured/estimated recently ‘around the supermassive black hole’ at the centre of our own galaxy, the Milky Way [7]. Even more tellingly, a strong magnetic field of hundreds of Gauss has been mapped to ‘the jet at the base of a supermassive black hole of a distant active galactic nucleus, PKS 1830-211 [8].

Supermagnetic field discovered near supermassive black hole

The team led by Wolfram Kollaschny at the Institute for Astrophysics of Göttingen University in Germany have found supermagnetic fields ~200 million Gauss close to the supermassive black hole of the quasar PG0043+039 [5, 6]. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars emit enormous amounts of light at all frequencies ranging from the radio to the X-ray. PG0043+039 (redshift z = 0.38512, see Box 1) is unusual in that it emits very weakly in the X-ray.

Box 1
Cosmological red shift and distance (reproduced from [9] Galaxy Making Stars at the Edge of the Universe and Other "Surprises",
SiS 60)
To work out the distance of galaxies, especially those really far away, astronomers use spectroscopy, a technique for analysing the light emitted or absorbed into narrow spectral bands or lines, and look at how much the galaxy’s light has shifted towards the red, i.e., increased in wavelength. Among the most precise markers for red shift is the Lyman-α line, emitted or absorbed by the hydrogen atom when its electron moves between the first excited and the ground state. In the laboratory (a ‘resting’ frame as far as Earthbound observers are concerned), this line (λrest) appears at 121.6 nm in the far ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum. For light coming from astronomical objects, the line is shifted to longer wavelengths (λob), and this shift is attributed to the expansion of the universe (hence the object moving away from Earth) according to Big Bang theory. The redshift z is the increase in wavelength relative to the rest wavelength.
z = (λob – λrest)/λrest                                                                             (1)

Thus, a redshift of 7 (7-fold excess) would mean that the normal rest wavelength is shifted into the infrared region, i.e., 972.8 nm.  From the red shift, it is possible to work out the distance of the object as well as the time relative to the present at which the light was emitted. This depends on a proportionality relationship known as Hubble’s Law between distance and the redshift.

The assumption that redshift represents cosmological distance, especially in cases of redshift values > 0.3 has been strongly disputed, as Hubble’s relationship is only linear below a redshift of 0.1.

Thanks to the Hubble telescope, the researchers were able to observe the quasar PG0043+039 in ultraviolet (UV), where spectroscopic lines unknown to date were identified, which they attributed to cyclotron lines. “Cyclotron lines are produced by electrons that take on spiral trajectories around the field lines of very strong magnetic fields,” explains Kollatschny. In addition to the Hubble, the team used giant optical land-based telescopes in Texas, USA, and South Africa, and the largest X-ray satellite of the European Space Agency, ESA XMM-Newton, which they focussed onto the quasar for ten hours.

In Big Bang cosmology, it is supposed that in quasars and active galactic nuclei at the centre of galaxies matter is subjected to extreme acceleration and heat as it is falling into the centre of the supermassive black hole (see above). This produces extreme luminosity in the immediate surroundings of the black hole, the radiation normally coming in all frequency ranges from radio to X-rays. The matter that disappears into the black hole is never seen again ‘except for some of it that’s catapulted into space in jets’ [5] (how that’s supposed to happen when nothing can escape from the black hole is not clear).

In PG0043+039, the supermassive black hole and super strong magnetic field are “in direct proximity”, according to the researchers.

Unusual bumps in the UV emission lines

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