Author Topic: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources  (Read 317 times)

Yowbarb

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Hi All, I learned a bit about epigenetics, methylation and hydroxylation and nutritional sources to make good things happen, from Socrates, ilinda and R.R. Book...
Their posts can be found in the Topic,
TEOTWAWKI / Apocalypse Movies
Link:  http://planetxtownhall.com/index.php?topic=6658.15

Socrates  Reply #15 on: August 06, 2017

R.R. Book Reply #16

ilinda        Reply #17

R.R. Book Reply #24 on: August 09, 2017
and other posts...in between, later. worth reading...
Genetic health, etc. B vitamins (natural sources not pills) choline, lecithin, folate all important. Will post more as I learn...
I posted this, since choline is part of the solution. - Yowbarb

12 Foods High in Choline
Beef Liver. 3 ounces: 283 mg (51% DV)
Salmon. 1 filet: 242 mg (44% DV)
Chickpeas. 1 cup uncooked: 198 mg (36% DV)
Split Peas. 1 cup uncooked: 188 mg (34% DV)
Navy Beans. 1 cup raw: 181 mg (32% DV)
Eggs. 1 large egg: 147 mg (27% DV)
Grass-Fed Beef. 3 ounces: 78 mg (14% DV)
Turkey.
...
This is one article I found... going to post more tomorrow.


The Power of Choline for Methylation

in Blog, Methylation and Genetics /
Many practitioners are aware that Betaine (aka Trimethylglycine, TMG) is the methyl donor in the BHMT pathway and as it’s alternate name suggests, possesses three chemically reactive methyl groups linked to a nitrogen atom.1 

Within the BHMT pathway, Betaine is converted into Dimethylglycine (DMG) after donating one of its three methyl groups to homocysteine, to convert it to methionine and ultimately SAMe as an alternate and important route of methylation production to the well known Folate/B12 requiring MTR pathway.

What many practitioners may not be aware of, is that Betaine can be readily produced in the body through the oxidation of Choline via the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes, particularly in the liver and muscles.2

For this reason Choline has also been shown to indirectly support homocysteine methylation.

One study of postmenopausal women showed that Choline supplementation increased plasma Betaine levels and slightly lowered plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) after six weeks.4

The upper tolerable limit for Choline in adults is 3.5 g/day. Beyond the diet and supplements, the only other source of choline is via de novo synthesis from phosphatidylcholine which requires significant amounts of SAMe via the PEMT pathway (3 mole SAM to produce 1 mole choline) and produces homocysteine.

A deficiency of Choline will therefore put an increased additional burden on potentially already strained SAMe/Methylation levels, in those exhibiting insufficient methylation capacity.

Available evidence suggests that Folate deficiency can be partly compensated for when more Choline is available, and vice versa.

For example, Choline and Phosphatidylcholine were depleted in the livers of rats fed a Folate-deficient diet.5 In turn, consumption of a Choline-deficient diet decreased hepatic Folate stores6 and lowered Methionine formation in animal livers by 20%–25%,7 due to less Choline being available for conversion into Betaine. The effects of Choline deficiency on reducing liver SAMe (by 60%) and increasing liver SAH (by 50%) were pronounced.7

Supplementation with Choline can therefore prove to be an invaluable if not essential co-prescription with any methylated B vitamins in the clinical treatment of methylation insufficiencies.

Supplements that include the preferable form ‘Choline Dihydrogen Citrate’ in combination with methylated Folate and B12, such as Research Nutrition’s Methyl Fortify, may provide maximum utility in patients requiring comprehensive methylation support.

Alternatively if you just want to use Methyl Folate on it’s own Research Nutrition’s L-5MTHF provides 500 mcg per capsule.

What about how to quench excess methyl groups?

Niacinamide B3 represents an invaluable clinical tool for balancing methylation protocols.

The mechanism of action is attributed to the conversion of Niacinamide into 1-Methyl-Niacinamide after receiving a methyl group via the Niacinamide n-methyltransferase (NNMT) enzyme. NNMT shunts Niacinamide away from NAD+ formation, using S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as its methyl donor. Clinical observations indicate a dose of 150mg Niacinamide appears to begin quenching excess methyl groups, with 500mg or more being required to make a noticeable impact in most individuals.

References

1. Obeid R. The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway. Nutrients 2013; 5: 3481–3495.

2. Rogers J.D., Sanchez-Saffon A., Frol A.B., Diaz-Arrastia R. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients treated with levodopa: Association with vascular disease. Arch. Neurol. 2003;60:59–64.

3. Wallace J.M., McCormack J.M., McNulty H., Walsh P.M., Robson P.J., Bonham M.P., Duffy M.E., Ward M., Molloy A.M., Scott J.M., et al. Choline supplementation and measures of choline and betaine status: A randomised, controlled trial in postmenopausal women. Br. J. Nutr. 2012;108:1264–1271.

4. Holm P.I., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Blom H.J., Keijzer M.B., den Heijer M. Betaine and folate status as cooperative determinants of plasma homocysteine in humans. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2005;25:379–385.

5. Kim Y.I., Miller J.W., da Costa K.A., Nadeau M., Smith D., Selhub J., Zeisel S.H., Mason J.B. Severe folate deficiency causes secondary depletion of choline and phosphocholine in rat liver. J. Nutr.1994;124:2197–2203.

6. Horne D.W., Cook R.J., Wagner C. Effect of dietary methyl group deficiency on folate metabolism in rats. J. Nutr. 1989;119:618–621.
Zeisel S.H., Zola T., da Costa K.A., Pomfret E.A. Effect of choline deficiency on S-adenosylmethionine and methionine concentrations in rat liver.

7. Biochem. J. 1989;259:725–729.

 


Yowbarb

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #1 on: August 11, 2017, 05:09:11 AM »
Yowbarb Note, some info on nutrition which supports DNA methylation. As mentioned in previous posts, folate-rich foods, choline, lecithin too. Posting links and excerpts from a couple articles. Foods with polyphenols, flavonoids, phytoestrogens and lycopene very valuable, as well.
Here is an Excerpt from:


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22359306

Dietary and lifestyle factors of DNA methylation.

Lim U1, Song MA.

'Lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, and body weight management, are known to constitute the majority of cancer causes. Epigenetics has been widely proposed as a main mechanism that mediates the reversible effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on carcinogenesis. This chapter reviews human studies on potential dietary and lifestyle determinants of DNA methylation.'

'Most data and supportive evidence exist for folate, a key nutritional factor in one-carbon metabolism that supplies the methyl units for DNA methylation. Other candidate bioactive food components include alcohol and other key nutritional factors of one-carbon metabolism, polyphenols and flavonoids in green tea, phytoestrogen, and lycopene. Some data also support a link of DNA methylation with physical activity and energy balance. Effects of dietary and lifestyle exposures on DNA methylation may be additionally modified by common genetic variants, environmental carcinogens, and infectious agents, an aspect that remains largely unexplored. In addition, growing literature supports that the environmental conditions during critical developmental stages may influence later risk of metabolic disorders in part through persistent programming of DNA methylation."
...
Yowbarb Note: Some links about nutritional sources of polyphenols, flavonoids, phytoestrogens and lycopene.


polyphenols http://www.healthline.com/health/polyphenols-foods#overview1 
foods which contain polyphenols
[there is] is the potential for polyphenols to interfere with or limit iron absorption.
It’s best to consume polyphenols through foods naturally containing them, instead of through artificially made supplements, which may come with side effects. Natural sources of polyphenols:

Cloves, dried peppermint, star anise, Cocoa powder and dark chocolate, berries; non-berry fruits such as black currants, plums, sweet cherries and apples, apple juice and pomegranate juice. Beans - black beans and white beans in particular have the highest number of polyphenols. Nuts: Hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds and pecans.
vegetables: Artichokes, chicory, red onions and spinach. Soy: tempeh, flour, tofu, yogurt, sprouts. Black and green tea, red wine. (Rose and white have some polyphenols, not nearly as much.)
...
http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=119 The World's healthiest Foods website

flavanoids Yowbarb Note - image at bottom of post lists best sources.  "The colorful reds, blues, and purples in berries are provided by their anthocyanidins, and that is why you find so many of these fruits listed in the anthocyanidin column."
"As a group of phytonutrients, flavonoids emphasize—in a way that is not as well emphasized by perhaps any other nutrient—how valuable fruits and vegetables are to our nourishment and everyday health."
...
phytoestrogens
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytoestrogens

Phytoestrogen content varies in different foods, and may vary significantly within the same group of foods (e.g. soy beverages, tofu) depending on processing mechanisms and type of soybean used. Legumes (in particular soybeans), whole grain cereals, and some seeds are high in phytoestrogens. A more comprehensive list of foods known to contain phytoestrogens includes:

Soybeans and soy products
Tempeh
Linseed (flax)
Sesame seeds
Wheatberries
Fenugreek (contains diosgenin, but also used to make Testofen®, a compound taken by men to increase testosterone).
Oats
Barley
Beans
Lentils
Yams
Rice
Alfalfa
Mung beans
Apples
Carrots
Pomegranates
Wheat germ
Rice bran
Lupin
Kudzu
Coffee
Licorice root
Mint
Ginseng
Hops,
Bourbon whiskey
Beer,
Fennel and
Anise.
Red clover (sometimes a constituent of green manure).
An epidemiological study of women in the United States found that the dietary intake of phytoestrogens in healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women is less than one milligram daily.
...
Last, but not least, lycopene  http://www.life-enhancement.com/magazine/article/588-lycopene-protects-skin-heart-and-more

Lycopene: Raw tomatoes, tomato soup, canned tomatoes, tomato sauce, tomato juice, vegetable juice, tomato paste and watermelon. Guava, grapefruit, apricot.
« Last Edit: August 11, 2017, 05:20:57 AM by Yowbarb »

R.R. Book

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #2 on: August 11, 2017, 07:54:34 AM »
Quote
What about how to quench excess methyl groups?

Barb, Wonderful documentation.  Can you please elaborate on when we might need to quench methyl groups?

Will also add that instead of taking cyano-cobalamin for B12, there is a newer methylated form called methyl-cobalamin that is supposed to be more bio-active.

Yowbarb

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #3 on: August 11, 2017, 05:36:33 PM »
Quote
What about how to quench excess methyl groups?

Barb, Wonderful documentation.  Can you please elaborate on when we might need to quench methyl groups?

Will also add that instead of taking cyano-cobalamin for B12, there is a newer methylated form called methyl-cobalamin that is supposed to be more bio-active.
R.R. :) that does sound better, methyl-cobalamin.
Re: quenching, yes I will work on that...

Yowbarb

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #4 on: August 11, 2017, 05:54:38 PM »
Quote
What about how to quench excess methyl groups?

Barb, Wonderful documentation.  Can you please elaborate on when we might need to quench methyl groups?

Hi again, for some reason when I was reading that sentence, how to quench excess methyl groups, I felt I understood it...re-read...it's as I thought. There is some phenomenon of excess methyl groups. Maybe it is similar to a free radical which does not need to be there, and what nutrition could get rid of that, such as coral calcium, which binds up the excess molecule and forms harmless H2O. This analogy is about the best I can do right now...posting what it said in the NIH article, about how Niacinamide begins quenching the excess methyl groups. I deduce that excess methyl groups are not a good thing. This is all quite new to me.

Hoping this helps, some.
More lata.
:)

What about how to quench excess methyl groups?

Niacinamide B3 represents an invaluable clinical tool for balancing methylation protocols.

The mechanism of action is attributed to the conversion of Niacinamide into 1-Methyl-Niacinamide after receiving a methyl group via the Niacinamide n-methyltransferase (NNMT) enzyme. NNMT shunts Niacinamide away from NAD+ formation, using S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as its methyl donor. Clinical observations indicate a dose of 150mg Niacinamide appears to begin quenching excess methyl groups

Yowbarb

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #5 on: August 11, 2017, 06:21:14 PM »
Quote
What about how to quench excess methyl groups?

Barb, Wonderful documentation.  Can you please elaborate on when we might need to quench methyl groups?

Will also add that instead of taking cyano-cobalamin for B12, there is a newer methylated form called methyl-cobalamin that is supposed to be more bio-active.

PS We might not be aware when we have "excess methyl groups" which are in need of "quenching." Not any more than we would know that we had free radicals (except possibly by symptoms.)
The body's DNA is wonky - or GOES wonky - for a variety of reasons and all we can do is be as informed as we can and regain the balance.
Apparently the niacinamide (I'm assuming natural sources) is a necessary substance for humans. (Niacianamide is part of B-vitamin and it is water soluble. Niacinamide is derived from niacin.)
Anything rich in B Comp should have that.

I plan on adding the wheat germ back into my diet.   http://www.botanical-online.com/english/wheatgerm.htm
(In the past I have tried taking B comp supplements and they did not seem to agree with me...) - Barb
This list below does not include wheat germ but going to take it anyway plus other sources. Note: R.R. You had mentioned sunflower seeds, those are on this niacin - niacinamide list. :)
...

https://draxe.com/top-10-vitamin-b3-niacin-foods/

Top 10 Niacin Rich Foods

1 Turkey
1 breast: 101 mg (over 100% DV)

2 Chicken breast
3 oz: 8.9 mg (44% DV)

3 Peanuts
1 cup: 21.9 mg (over 100% DV)

4 Mushrooms
1 cup: 7.6 mg (34% DV)

5 Liver
1 slice: 11.9 mg (60% DV)

6 Tuna
3 oz: 11.3 mg (56% DV)

7 Green peas
1 cup: 3 mg (15% DV)

8 Grass-fed Beef
3oz: 7.6 mg (36% DV)

9 Sunflower seeds
1 cup: 3.8 mg (19% DV)

10 Avocado
1 whole fruit: 3.5 (17% DV)

ilinda

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #6 on: August 11, 2017, 06:39:08 PM »
Barb, thanks for posting so many of these articles.  Here I come in a bit late and find you have posted enough for a week!  So much to learn, so much to study.  Thank you again.

Yowbarb

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Re: Epigenetics, Methylation, Hydroxylation and Nutritional Sources
« Reply #7 on: August 11, 2017, 09:31:30 PM »
Barb, thanks for posting so many of these articles.  Here I come in a bit late and find you have posted enough for a week!  So much to learn, so much to study.  Thank you again.

ilinda thank YOU and R.R. and Socrates.
I learned something completely new to me, reading your posts.   :)