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Author Topic: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift  (Read 88815 times)

Jimfarmer

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #30 on: March 21, 2015, 09:13:43 PM »
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one very low-tech way to determine when Sol, our Sun, is directly overhead is to measure repeatedly the sun's shadow on a completely level and straight pole or post in level ground.

A vertical pole on a level surface might be easier to work with, especially if you could mark the position of the tip of the shadow on that surface.  Anyway, if you are marking the length of the shadow on a stick as the shadow moves, the surface that that stick rests on and moves around on must be level.

As the Sun just peeks over the eastern horizon in the morning, all shadows are very long towards the west.  The shadow shortens until true noon, at which time it begins to lengthen towards the east, until it is very long again when the sun sets in the west below the horizon.

Shape of the curve of shadow length: parabola concave up. Well, not exactly a parabola, since the shadow is infinitely long at sunrise and sunset if the Sun's elevation is zero and 180 at those times, respectively.

See http://mvhs1.mbhs.edu/mvhsproj/projects/shadowf/shadindex.html

« Last Edit: March 21, 2015, 11:27:43 PM by Jimfarmer »

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #31 on: March 22, 2015, 07:14:09 AM »
Quote
one very low-tech way to determine when Sol, our Sun, is directly overhead is to measure repeatedly the sun's shadow on a completely level and straight pole or post in level ground.

A vertical pole on a level surface might be easier to work with, especially if you could mark the position of the tip of the shadow on that surface.  Anyway, if you are marking the length of the shadow on a stick as the shadow moves, the surface that that stick rests on and moves around on must be level.

As the Sun just peeks over the eastern horizon in the morning, all shadows are very long towards the west.  The shadow shortens until true noon, at which time it begins to lengthen towards the east, until it is very long again when the sun sets in the west below the horizon.

Shape of the curve of shadow length: parabola concave up. Well, not exactly a parabola, since the shadow is infinitely long at sunrise and sunset if the Sun's elevation is zero and 180 at those times, respectively.

See http://mvhs1.mbhs.edu/mvhsproj/projects/shadowf/shadindex.html


Yes, your parabolic curve is closer to it than the inverted Bell curve, as the "ends" do not flatten out as they do in a Bell curve.

I did try measuring the shadow repeatedly around noon, but two problems arose.  One is that a solid white or other light color sheet or tarp is needed to place on the ground where the shadow will fall, as the vegetation, ground, and all the variety found where the shadow falls makes this venture very difficult.  It is hard enough to mark one shadow, but repeatedly marking it, means backing up, going forward, looking askance, etc.

The second problem is that the length of shadow changes less, by the second, that the direction of shadow, or at least it seems that way. 

In fact, this entire project of measuring Sol's shadow at true solar noon has made me realize the importance of having the shadow fall onto a white sheet or tarp or other light-colored material.

So thanks, Jim.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #32 on: April 20, 2015, 06:40:50 AM »
Finally April 17, 2015 here in Missouri, USA, was a sunny day for observing and measuring the sun's shadow.

For now, the north-south line is still slowly, but surely, continuing to move clockwise, if you can imagine it as the hand of a clock. 
The pics of the cardstock show one new date, 4-17-15 added, and notice that it appears at "mark #15", along with January 5, 2-15.   A third pic shows a listing of some of the dates of my observations. 

As mentioned previously, I have many more observations, but there are way too many to include them all, as the lines representing the north-south line would fill and clutter the picture.  So what I do is watch and watch, waiting for a day when a north-south line has moved enough to make it worth the effort to document and photograph it.  What we are looking for here, folks, is the BIGGER PICTURE, i.e., the overall movement of this line which tells us a lot about the Earth's rotational axis orientation with respect to our sun, Sol.

Stay tuned for the eventual photos of the objects that are only represented as drawings/sketchings now, and stay tuned for more sun-shadow observations.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #33 on: May 15, 2015, 06:21:13 AM »
Going Counter-Clockwise Again!

On May 14, 2015, I gathered a bit more information about the Earth's axis of rotation, and  its wobble, or whatever we want to call it. 

Again, if we want to depict  this axis movement by drawing it on paper,  we draw a straight line on the face of  a picture of a clock,  Initially we can have the north part of the line pointing toward 12 o'clock, and the south, toward 6 o'clock.

Summarizing, and looking at point #8 on my card stock drawing,  we see that on April 29, 2015, the sun's shadow pointed toward #8 on the "concrete stone base", at which time the north-south line (sun's shadow) was moving clockwise, as the days passed.

As of May 3, 2015, the line was still pointing to #8, and by May 6, 2015, the line had moved clockwise a bit more and was pointing toward #4 on the right side of the cellar door.

May 12, 2015 showed the sun's noon shadow  pointing at the right edge of the cellar door where it meets the door jamb, so I gave it # 3.8 to indicate being between #3 and #4, but did not draw a line so as not to clutter the card stock.  By May 13, 2015 the shadow was pointing at #4, indicating a change in direction from clockwise, back to counter-clockwise.  Then on May 14, I noted the sun's shadow was pointing even further to the left, at a location approximately 1" to the left of #4.  I did not note this on the drawing or the card stock, since I eyeballed the measurement as approximately 1".

What this shows is that the sun's shadow showed clockwise movement at successive noon time readings from a period of "waffling" during the period February 12, through March 11, 2015, at #28, and then moving clockwise across the points on the corner stone base, including # 25, 15, and 8, and continuing clockwise to point # 4 on May 6, 2015.

Then we have no readings (due to either illness or cloudy days) from May 7 through May 12, 2015.  It is speculation, but from point #4 on May 6, the shadow could have moved further clockwise, passing up #3.8, then reversing, and returning to #4 by May 13. 

A second possibility is that on May 6, 2015, Sol's shadow pointed toward point #4, then "waffled" between #4 and #3.8 for a few days, as it was in the process of again reversing itself, to its new and current counterclockwise direction of movement.  I tend to think this is correct.

From my point of view, it is probably not that important which of the two possibilities is correct.  What IS important is that the sun's noon shadow is now gradually moving counterclockwise again.  One might ask why the Earth would seem to "waffle" when reversing directions.  My best guess is the Earth is so massive, that it is not like a tiny car being suddenly put into reverse.  The Earth is much more massive than a tiny car, and more importantly, the forces causing the car to go in reverse are all contained inside that car, whereas the forces causing the Earth to reverse directions are external.

One important thing I noticed the other day that needs to be said.  When I drew the little building and landmarks on the card stock, I neglected to accurately depict the "corner base" as jutting out a bit, perhaps a foot or so, in front of the concrete block base.  This means in this two-dimensional drawing the angle between one group of points (28 through 8 ) and the other points (3, 3.8, and 4) is considerably less than the drawing shows.  I certainly did not intend this, and there was no subterfuge involved.  Here's what I need to correct in the next card stock update:  show the corner stone base jutting out, and when that happens, the viewer will see how very close #8 is to #4.  They are actually very close!  My apologies to anyone who looked at this and scratched his/her head.

Note in the card stock I have added a few dates to #8 and #4, and also added a new point, 3.8.

ASAP, I plan to draw a more accurate card stock showing how very close #8 and #4 are, which will hopefully clarify this a bit for anyone who thought I was making a major error.
Updates to follow.
 

Jimfarmer

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #34 on: May 15, 2015, 09:23:43 AM »
Hmmm.  Any chance that you could produce a scattergram of expected versus actual angle of the shadow from true North?

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #35 on: May 16, 2015, 06:59:34 AM »
Hmmm.  Any chance that you could produce a scattergram of expected versus actual angle of the shadow from true North?
I need to clarify the question.   I'm not sure what you mean by the "angle of the shadow from true North"?

Two angles come to mind.  The angle between point #8 and point #4, which APPEARS in my two-dimensional drawing to be rather large, in reality is quite small, and I plan to correct this in an amended drawing.

 The other angle(s) is the one which I have not yet published, but plan to do so.  I have been measuring the length of Sol's noon shadow on the ground, where possible, and using that data, plan to publish the angle of the sun from the horizon for those given dates.

Sorry for the wordy reply, but still am not exactly sure of your question.

Jimfarmer

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #36 on: May 16, 2015, 08:55:22 AM »
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Quote
    Hmmm.  Any chance that you could produce a scattergram of expected versus actual angle of the shadow from true North?
I need to clarify the question.   I'm not sure what you mean by the "angle of the shadow from true North"?

You have a rod standing vertically on a flat surface.  It casts a shadow.
From the base of the rod, draw a line on the flat surface going towards true North.
Measure the angle between that line and the shadow.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #37 on: May 16, 2015, 06:21:40 PM »
Quote
Quote
    Hmmm.  Any chance that you could produce a scattergram of expected versus actual angle of the shadow from true North?
I need to clarify the question.   I'm not sure what you mean by the "angle of the shadow from true North"?

You have a rod standing vertically on a flat surface.  It casts a shadow.
From the base of the rod, draw a line on the flat surface going towards true North.
Measure the angle between that line and the shadow.
Ahhh, I see what you are asking.

I haven't done that, even from the start for two reasons: 
1) don't we get true north by first finding magnetic north, then consider declination?;  there is so much iron-bearing rock around here I'm not sure the reading for magnetic north would be accurate, thus I've never tried to find true north for this project; and
2) the site is totally surrounded on the north by trees and I cannot get a line to Polaris on ANY night.

If you are thinking my thoughts on iron-bearing rock are not as important as I thought, let me know and I can find true north, using the compass and declination.



Jimfarmer

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #38 on: May 17, 2015, 09:02:14 PM »
Using the Sun or a compass to determine true North are not reliable methods now that the Earth axis of rotation wobbles and the magnetic field is often perturbed.  Star sighting does not work either because of the wobble.

However, longitude values do not change as the axis moves, and most maps should show the direction of true north.

So, if you could mark your location on a professional map (from USGS, for example) and then find a landmark that is visible from your location and is truly north of your location, then you could draw a line on the flat base from the pole and pointing towards that landmark.  Or you could use some other convenient landmark, measure the angle between true north and the line from it to your location on the map, and then use that angle to draw the line to true north on the flat base of the pole.

But, if the purpose of the experiment is just to document frequent variation in the orientation of the axis of the Earth, then a listing of the angle of the shadow (at true noon or any other fixed time of day) and some arbitrary fixed line from the base of the pole, would be sufficient.

Another, more interesting version of the experiment would be to list the angle between actual true north and apparent north as determined by the shadow-tip method.  If you use the two-point shadow-tip method to determine north as indicated by the Sun, then measurements could be taken at any time of day (not just at true noon).  That data might reveal a diurnal pattern in the wobble.

Compass readings could be taken at any time of day or night, of course, but variations in the apparent declination at your location would be related to fluctuations in the magnetic field, which might or might not relate to the wobble of the axis.  Documenting that relationship, or lack of it, could be part of the project.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #39 on: May 19, 2015, 07:24:25 AM »
Using the Sun or a compass to determine true North are not reliable methods now that the Earth axis of rotation wobbles and the magnetic field is often perturbed.  Star sighting does not work either because of the wobble.

However, longitude values do not change as the axis moves, and most maps should show the direction of true north.

So, if you could mark your location on a professional map (from USGS, for example) and then find a landmark that is visible from your location and is truly north of your location, then you could draw a line on the flat base from the pole and pointing towards that landmark.  Or you could use some other convenient landmark, measure the angle between true north and the line from it to your location on the map, and then use that angle to draw the line to true north on the flat base of the pole.

But, if the purpose of the experiment is just to document frequent variation in the orientation of the axis of the Earth, then a listing of the angle of the shadow (at true noon or any other fixed time of day) and some arbitrary fixed line from the base of the pole, would be sufficient.

Another, more interesting version of the experiment would be to list the angle between actual true north and apparent north as determined by the shadow-tip method.  If you use the two-point shadow-tip method to determine north as indicated by the Sun, then measurements could be taken at any time of day (not just at true noon).  That data might reveal a diurnal pattern in the wobble.

Compass readings could be taken at any time of day or night, of course, but variations in the apparent declination at your location would be related to fluctuations in the magnetic field, which might or might not relate to the wobble of the axis.  Documenting that relationship, or lack of it, could be part of the project.
Thanks for the reminder (!) that now that we have a new Earth wobble, and magnetic field perturbations, that using Polaris, the Sun, or a compass to determine north is/are unreliable. 

After pondering what you've written I realize I cannot determine "true north", or longitudinal line/direction for the main reason that the site of observation is surrounded by dense forest (primarily cedar) on all sides, and has only been opened up in a small circle around the south, or at least where I thought south was.  We have plenty of USGS maps and in fact have our location noted on a number of them, but to be able to locate/identify a landmark that is north of the site, and somehow tie that "north site" to our site is impossible.

But you've given me an idea with your "But, if the purpose of the experiment is just to document frequent variation in the orientation of the axis of the Earth, then a listing of the angle of the shadow (at true noon or any other fixed time of day) and some arbitrary fixed line from the base of the pole, would be sufficient.".

I got into this "by accident", by virtue of noticing an extreme wobble between 2011 and 2012, while engaging in my first attempt at setting up an experimental solar array, and trying to determine a north-south line for proper orientation of the solar panels.   Upon seeing the disparity between 2011 "north" and 2012 "north",  I got drawn into this investigation out of curiosity if nothing else.

So, using your suggestion, I'm going to attach a string from the base of the pole to the point on a tree that indicates the December 2011 "north-south" line.  Two reasons for this:  1) at no time since December, 2011, has the north-south line pointed in that direction; and 2) the tree is an immovable object.  Once that December, 2011 line has been re-established, it will be an easy matter to measure the angle between that line and any other line, including new ones.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #40 on: May 23, 2015, 06:12:24 AM »
In checking Sol's north-south line on May 22, 2015, I see it appears that the Earth axis is now "waffling" again.  The line aligned perfectly with #4 location (seen on the cardstock shown in Reply #33 above) so it can be seen that right now the Earth's axis is most likely in the process of changing direction again.  Most likely, but I won't say definitely until we see it.

But based on Jim's suggestion, I have resurrected the first north-south line I obtained, from December, 2011.  In the photos, it can be seen as the one to the most counterclockwise direction, or to the left, represented by the "string" that is tied higher on the pole.

It is also easy to see the other "string", as that represents the north-south line for May 22, 2015.  And even without doing any calculations, one can easily see that there is a marked difference between the two strings and the directions to which they point.

At present I'm pondering the most accurate way to determine the angle between yesterday's line and my original December, 2011 line.  It is not as easy as I initially anticipated, as the pivot point is the CENTER pf a steel post filled with concrete, and whose overall diameter is 2 3/8", thus the radius of that post, 1 3/16", must be taken into account.

Update to follow shortly.

Jimfarmer

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #41 on: May 23, 2015, 08:47:23 AM »
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At present I'm pondering the most accurate way to determine the angle between yesterday's line and my original December, 2011 line.  It is not as easy as I initially anticipated, as the pivot point is the CENTER pf a steel post filled with concrete, and whose overall diameter is 2 3/8", thus the radius of that post, 1 3/16", must be taken into account.

Run a line parallel to one of the lines towards the other line until they cross.  Then measure the angle there.


ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #42 on: May 24, 2015, 07:41:44 PM »
Will do that. 

Tonight I obtained a printout of one of several on-site shots and plan to work from the printout, rather than try to manually create a parallel line, on site.
Details to follow.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #43 on: May 25, 2015, 02:37:57 PM »
OK, decided to calculate the angle between our December, 2011 north-south line and our May 22, 2015 north-south line in three ways, each as a check against the others.
 
First, from Jim's suggestion:
1)  I drew a line parallel to Dec, 2011 line, exactly one inch away. 
2) Then used a protractor to make the "parallel-to-Dec., 2011" and May 22, 2015 lines intersect .
3) note that by positioning the pivot hole of our protractor over the intersection point of our May 22, 2015 line and our new line--(parallel to Dec. 2011), we see on our protractor we have an angle of 39 degrees between our two lines.
See Image #0093

Second method, which could have been done prior to the above one, involved using the protractor edge to continue our two lines "into" the interior of our pole, where the two lines do intersect. 
Next positioned protractor with pivot hole over the intersection point where the two lines meet "inside" the pole.  With protractor positioned as such, note that the angle between the lines shows on our protractor as 39 degrees.
See Images #91 and #92

Third method involves a bit of trigonometry.  See Images # 94 and #95.
1) place protractor edge exactly along May 22, 2015 line, for the purpose of making an exactly perpendicular line that will connect our May 22, 2015 line ("x") with our December, 2011 line, with the perpendicular line being drawn as "y".  (Positioned a ruler on top of protractor to accomplish this, using pivot hole and 90 degree marker.)
2) Measured length of "x" from intersection point inside pole to the new vertical line "y".  Next measured "y" .  X=3.8125"  and Y=3.125"
3) Trig tells us that "y" divided by "x" (Y/X)  (in a right triangle) represents the tangent of the desired angle, and Y/X= 3.125/3.8125 which = 0.816993464.
Thus our tangent is 0.816993464.
 Looking in the trig tables of any trigonometry book we find that the tan for 39 deg 14'  is 0.81655
  and the tan for 39 deg 15'  is 0.81703. 

Our 0.81699 is close enough to 0.81703 that we could say the angle between our December, 2011 line and our May 22, 2015 line is approximately 39 deg 15 min.

Note that the tape measure in the photo when reproduced, appears considerably smaller, although I do not have the exact scale.    If anyone sees any errors, glaring or otherwise, please let me know.  We want as much accuracy as possible, even though we're working mostly "in the field" with rather low-tech methods, which are better than none.

ilinda

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Re: Evidence of Earth Axis Shift
« Reply #44 on: May 30, 2015, 08:52:56 AM »
The readings obtained on May 28 and 29, 2015 do confirm that our Earth's axis now appears to be moving counterclockwise again. 

On both days, the north-south line, that is the sun's shadow at exactly noon is pointing at location #8, as shown in our newly revised cardstock drawing of the actual site.  Note that location #8 is counterclockwise from location #4.

And I'll restate that this "movement" of the Earth's axis, or wobble, is not smooth, but seems to go in "fits and starts".    This is to be expected with a massive body such as Earth, normally in balance with the major external forces from Sun and moon.  But now it is obvious that something other than Sun and moon are adding to the mix of external forces acting upon the Earth, and these new forces are most likely both of mass and magnetics.

Note in this revised drawing, I have shown the cornerstone jutting out a bit from the building, as it does do, thus making for more accuracy in showing the north-south lines and their close proximity.

Stay tuned.....

 

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