MadMax - OFF-THE-GRID, EMPs, etc. > DC Power Survival Strategies

Ruth's Topic, BATTERIES

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Ruth sent this to me, for a Topic.  :)
Off Grid Battery Systems

STORING THE SUN  By Kevin Bullis | Photographs by Ken Richardson on February 18, 2014

Aquion manufactures cheap, long-lasting batteries for storing renewable energy.
Jay Whitacre says his batteries’ most promising near-term application lies in storing energy from solar panels or other renewable sources in off-grid homes or rural areas, providing a much cheaper 24-hour power source than a common alternative: diesel power. Lead-acid batteries are used for this purpose today, but they are toxic and require air-¬conditioning to avoid deterioration in some climates, raising costs.
1.     a calciner, bakes electrode powders made of materials such as manganese oxide.
2.     The granulated electrode material is pressed into wafers
3.     The wafers are handled robotically in an assembly line.
4.     A machine picks up the wafers (each square section picks up four, using suction) and places them in plastic cases.
5.     The machine fills an empty case, alternating positive and negative electrodes with gray foil current collectors and white membranes that prevent short circuits.
6.     After a lid is put on, a worker cleans the battery.
7.     Seven batteries are stacked and bolted together.
8.     The stacks are arranged on pallets and connected  to electrical leads for testing.
9.    Whitacre’s batteries are expected to last twice as long as lead-acid batteries and cost about the same to make. They won’t require air-conditioning and will use nontoxic materials. Electrical current in the battery is generated as sodium ions from a saltwater electrolyte shuttle between manganese oxide–based positive electrodes and carbon-based negative ones.
One place the battery could make a big difference: in poor regions of the world that lack an existing electric grid. By 2030, one billion people are expected to get electricity for the first time. That will mean a lot more use of fossil fuels unless renewable power options are as cheap, safe, and reliable as possible. If “even a fraction of that billion can use solar because of our batteries,” Whitacre says, the company will be able to reduce not only carbon dioxide emissions but also local pollution from diesel generators.
To match the cost of lead-acid batteries, which are among the cheapest types, Whitacre uses inexpensive manufacturing equipment repurposed from the food and pharmaceutical industries. Hydraulic presses originally designed to make aspirin pills stamp out wafers of positive and negative electrode materials, and robot arms built to wrap chocolates are used to package electrode wafers with foils that act as current collectors. At the end of the line, the briefcase-sized batteries are stacked and bolted together. A pallet of 84 batteries, about a meter tall, will store 19.2 kilowatt-hours of electricity. Whitacre says you’d need about 20 such pallets to serve a village of 200 people in a poor country. Two pallets would power a U.S. home for a day.
The technology has its limits. It is best suited for slow and steady operation, not rapidly charging and discharging large amounts of power as some utilities require. And while the batteries are cheaper than other kinds, pairing them with solar panels still can’t beat the economics of conventional power plants in most areas. That is why Whitacre is focusing initially on regions without an existing electricity grid. Aquion has already started shipping batteries to customers for evaluation. The company expects to start full-scale production by this spring, making enough batteries each year to store about 200 megawatt-hours of electricity—enough for roughly 150 solar-powered villages. The factory in Pennsylvania could be replicated in other countries. “If our technology proves out, we won’t be able to make them fast enough,” Whitacre says.
This story was updated on to correct the number of pallets of batteries that would be needed to serve 200 people. The figure is 20, not 60.
10.  26

This article is also from Global Moderator, Ruth.

Aquion Batteries

Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI™) Energy Storage
Aquion’s batteries are designed to meet the rigorous requirements of off-grid and microgrid applications. The batteries have excellent cycle life even at high depths of discharge, reducing the need for system oversizing and costly battery replacements.  Aquion’s abuse tolerant batteries deliver reliable performance across a wide temperature operating range without the need for costly thermal regulation and extensive monitoring equipment.
High efficiency and long stands at partial states of charge with minimal degradation makes AHI batteries perfect for long duration, daily cycling applications like renewables support and diesel genset optimization.  Aquion’s unique combination of performance, cost, safety and sustainability results in industry-leading total cost of ownership (TCO) for off-grid and microgrid applications.
High Performance, Safe, Sustainable, Cost-Effective
High Performance: Avoid costly downtime and battery replacements
•                Very high cycle life
•                Usable depth of discharge (DoD): 100%
•                Extremely abuse tolerant
•                Ability to stand at partial state of charge
•                Wide operating temperature range
•                High efficiency
•                Self-balancing
•                Minimal degradation
Safe: Inherently safe chemistry
•                Not flammable, explosive, or corrosive
•                No dangerous or toxic components
Sustainable: Simple, abundant, nontoxic materials
•                Environmentally benign materials
•                No corrosive acids or noxious fumes
•                Suitable for deployment globally
Excellent Economics: Industry-leading total cost of ownership
•                Low acquisition costs ($/kWh)
•                Better value than lead acid or lithium ion
•                No regular maintenance
•                No thermal management
•                No active management required
Active Field Demonstrations
Remote Energy Storage Systems
•                Proof-of concept containerized system designed to support a variety of loads
•                Similar application and form factor to small-scale, remote energy systems, like telco towers
•                Currently used as an off-grid workspace, powering lighting, AC and small electronics
To contact sales for offgrid applications go to this link:
Some of the things to consider before contacting them.
 Please check all that apply
•               Solar System Installer
•               System Integrator
•               Project Developer
•               Software/Equipment Manufacturer
•               EPC
•               End User/Owner/Operator
•               Other
What are your primary energy storage applications? *
Please check all that apply
•               Low Voltage Microgrid (<120 Vdc)
•               High Voltage Microgrid (480-700 Vdc)
•               C&I Energy Management
•               Residential PV Energy Management
•               Grid Scale Services
•               Telecom

This company and its products is fascinating!  Does anyone know if these new batteries are in use already?

Just a thought:  we should all be experimenting on this DC power generation and here are links to some fascinating and easy looking projects to get us started.  No kidding, these look fun and easy.  Plus, when the grid is down, what if you have solar power but a huge hail storm destroys your panels?  What will you do?  What if a windstorm destroys your wind generator?  What if your gasoline or propane powered generator runs out of fuel?  Have any readers ever lived for more than a few hours or a day without electricity, when the outage was UNEXPECTED?

Two links show how to make a potato battery:

Two other links show how to make a lemon battery:  6m47sec

Here's what I found for Aquion Battery Stack, Price, Model, add ons.Aquion Batteries Update
The website mentions a blog with a story about someone who just installed a stack at their home.
Item Code: AQUS20-008F
Model Number: S20-P08F
Volts: 48V
Aquion Energy
S-Line Pre-wired Battery Stack
$1,155.00 List price $1,276.00
Availability:  4 - 6 Weeks
Aquion Energy’s S20-P08F Battery Stack is the first cost-effective energy storage solution that is high-performance, safe, sustainable, and non-toxic! Based on Aquion’s patented Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI™) technology (a unique saltwater electrolyte chemistry), the S20-P08F is designed for stationary, long-duration cycling applications. These batteries deliver extremely long cycle life, deep depth of discharge and excellent abuse tolerance. S-Line Battery Stacks are ~2.4 kWh systems at 48V nominal and can be connected in series or parallel for a wide range of system configurations. The only Cradle to Cradle Certified™ energy storage product on the market !
Read our BLOG as our own Ben Farmer just installed this new technology at his home !
Off-grid and micro-grid applications - these batteries have excellent cycle life even at high depths of discharge, reducing the need for system oversizing and costly battery replacements.
Energy management - allows users to avoid peak demand charges by shifting energy use to off-peak hours. Can also serve as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) in the event of scheduled or unscheduled outages.
Grid services - large scale energy storage systems can make the grid more reliable and more flexible because they decouple energy services from a particular fuel source.
Extremely high cycle life at 100% depth of discharge - 3000 cycles at 100% DoD; 4000 cycles at 80% DoD; 6000 cycles at 50% DoD
Extremely high abuse tolerance avoids frequent maintenance, downtime, or replacements
Ability to stand at partial state of charge with minimal self-discharge to provide reliable performance on demand
Wide operating temperature range with minimal degradation
Non-toxic, non-flammable, non-explosive, non-corrosive (classified as standard goods vs. hazardous goods)
Environmentally benign materials - no corrosive acids or noxious fumes
Better value than lead acid or lithium ion **See Documents Tab above for lead acid and lithion ion comparisons
No regular maintenance or active management required
NEW! Higher peak power rating with 20A in-line fusing
NEW! Energy can be extracted between 40-60 Vdc to sync up with LVD of standard inverters
NEW! 4 Year Standard Warranty
This is the latest version - the S20P stack. It is NOT backwards compatible w/ prior versions (S10, S20), but will be forward compatible with the next version S30 (coming out in Q4).

Please go to the website (link above) for additional information and graphics regarding product characteristics and  performance.


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