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Author Topic: Wayne Steiger interviews Dr. Claudia Albers re: amateur physics questions  (Read 396 times)

R.R. Book

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In this video, questions are posed to Dr. Claudia Albers from members of an amateur physics society in Argentina:

Q: If photons are massless, how can they split into two parts that have mass in an electric field: an electron and a proton, negative and positive, and with different masses?

Mass is energy.  All that happens is a conversion of one form of energy into another.  The photon has a frequency with energy which is transformed into mass, per Einstein's E=mc2.  Two things have been long believed:

1. A photon has energy but no mass.
2. It splits into two particles, a particle and an anti-particle.

What is more recently understood:
This doesn't mean the anti-particle doesn't have mass.  Instead it means the oppositely charged particles will annihilate.

There is no such thing as an "anti-particle."  We know due to observation that we are living in a particle universe, not an anti-particle universe.  How can we say there's an equal number of particles and anti-particles when we're living in a particle universe, and there isn't an equal number of particles and anti-particles?

These slight little things that are part of the standard model of particle physics are what is confusing people.  It's not that you have a particle with mass and a particle with negative mass.  Both particles have mass, but they have opposite charge.  And what we see is photons turn into two particles that have the same mass, but they have the tendency to collide again and annihilate.  The gravitational attraction and gravitational repulsion are the same. 

So in that case electrostatic interaction will bring them together again and they will annihilate.  It's only when you have particles with different mass (the proton and the electron), that the tendency to separate from each other is not of the same strength as the tendency to attract each other.

Q: When the photon splits, whose force prevails: the gravitational force that is weak, or the electrostatic force that is stronger?   If it's the electrostatic force that prevails, then the protons and electrons will get together again.

It's dependent upon the initial energy of the photons, because the initial energy of the photon goes into creating the mass of the particles, and then there should be some energy left over, which then exists within the particles, and this is photons. 

We know that photons exist within particles, because when we have an atom, and a photon comes in and is absorbed by an electron, the electron moves to a higher orbit or exits the atom.
So we know the photon got absorbed by the electron, and therefore is inside the electron.  When that happens the gravitational energy of the electron increases.  So its repulsion to the protons that are in the nucleus increases, and that's why it moves to a higher orbit.  This is what we observe all the time.  This is how photons are absorbed by matter, and why when electrons move to a lower orbit, what happens is a photon is given off.  This is why atoms then give off light when they move to their lower energy or the ground state: they give off a photon.

Q: How is it possible that once the photon splits, part of the photon remains in the particles that were just formed, and remains with all the potential properties?  Is it divisible?

We know photons exist within particles because of what happens with atoms, and I had to realize as well that the gravitational interaction has to be of different strengths depending not only on the mass of the particles, but something else that causes stars to have different degrees of charge separation within them: so I realize that planets and stars are the same thing.  But if a planet is larger, then there's more gravitational energy within its particles, and that gravitational energy causes the proton and the electron to separate from each other, and that's what causes the potential difference between the core and the outer layer.  Then that's what causes the discharges, and that's what causes the atmosphere of that star to be able to give off light through these discharges.

So it was due to the fact that there had to be a separation force, which I didn't realize would have to be part of the gravitational interaction.  It's just that the separation was between protons and the electrons.  And then I had to realize the protons must attract each other - that's actually the Strong Force.  The gravitational force that we feel is actually the Strong Force, but at longer distances. 

So at short distances, we get the Strong Force, which is what causes fusion to occur, and what causes protons to come together and neutrons to come together, because the main part of a neutron is still a proton.  And so they will still be attracted under the Strong Force to other protons.  So that's what causes heavy nuclei to form - the Strong Force - it's what causes the nucleus to stay together. 

Then at longer distances, you have protons in one nucleus here and protons in another nucleus there.  What attracts them to each other is the same force, but it's now at a longer range, so the force is not as strong.  And as the range decreases, it doesn't decrease in a linear fashion; eventually what we get is one celestial body over here and one celestial body over there, and what attracts one to another is the protons in their cores.  That's the gravitational attraction between protons.  That's what gravity is.

Q: If the photons don't meet with an electrical field or collide with an object, will they travel eternally without losing their properties?

A photon is a particle that will keep on traveling at the speed of light forever, unless it's absorbed by matter, or unless it goes through a region of high electrical fields, and then it will split.

Q: Does matter creation only happen in the presence of an electrical field, or when a photon collides into a wall, or when it interacts in photosynthesis?

There's some difference in photosynthesis.  What we have is a chemical reaction where the photon is absorbed by electrons.  When we're talking about chemical reactions, we're talking about atoms interacting through their outer electrons.  It does not affect the nucleus.

Q: How is energy neutralized?

You don't neutralize energy; energy is always conserved.  It transforms from one form to another.  It starts out as a photon.  It may transform into mass.  It may transform into a neutrino, but it doesn't get neutralized.  In other words, it doesn't die. 

Q: How can a photon stop its enormous speed suddenly?  Will it disappear after a collision?

What happens to the photon when it gets split, it's because everything is a resonance.  A photon is a particle and it's a resonance in space, that's moving through space at the speed of light, but yet it's spread out through the whole universe because it's a wave. 

So whenever you have a resonance, you have resonances within resonances, so the particles are in there already, but they're not manifested as mass yet.  Everything is both a particle and a wave. 

It's difficult for us to conceive that both can exist at the same time.  Both exist at the same time at the same place.  A wave has particle properties, and a particle has wave properties.  The particles are inside the photon already as waves, as resonances. 

When it goes through the electromagnetic field, because you have the two particles that are dependent upon the energy of the photon, certain photons will have certain possibilities for what particles it has inside it. 

So if at the moment the photon is at the proton-electron resonance as it goes through the electric field, what happens is that the proton moves in one direction and the electron in the other.

Q: If the theory of matter creation through light is real, what happened with the light that hit the earth on the surface and in the inner core?  It had to produce a lot of matter in the last billion years.

For particle creation to occur, you need an extremely high electrical field.  That's usually not created much within planets.  It usually happens when you have these huge electrical discharges.  The way stars form is due to the  electrical discharges that occur from the galactic nucleus. 

So what happens is at the galactic nucleus, this is where stars really form.  At the surface of the galactic nucleus, just like on the surface on the star, there is a huge electrical field due to the huge difference from the interior.  The galactic nucleus - like a star, except it's much larger - has a nucleus, and that nucleus is positively charged, and the outer edge is negatively charged.  Between the two, there's a huge field, and a huge electrical potential, and huge discharges are occurring. 

When these discharges occur, what we have is photons being given off through the discharges.  Again, it's energy transformation.  And because it's in this region of very high electrical field, the photon suddenly splits into particles, but the field is so intense, and the heat and the energy, that fusion occurs almost immediately, and a whole lot of heavy nuclei are formed.  Everything that's in the Periodic Table and beyond, a huge number of unstable nuclei suddenly are formed, from just photons splitting.   

So then the gravitational attraction starts bringing the nuclei together, and what you get is the nucleus of a new star forming.  This is where it's occurring, and then it's flying out into space.  The galactic nucleus is rotating so the new star is flying out into space into an elliptical orbit around the galactic nucleus, and the galaxy rotates a little bit more and ejects more and that's how the spiral arms of the galaxy form, that's why they form spirals - because the stars that form at the galactic nucleus are going out in an elliptical orbit - they are going around and the galaxy is turning and creating more as it goes along, and that creates this arm going around.

« Last Edit: April 30, 2018, 05:35:41 AM by R.R. Book »


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